CSE340 2019 Project 1: A Simple Compiler! Solved

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Description

1         Introduction

I will start with a high-level description of the project and its tasks in this section and then go into a detailed description on how to go about achieving these tasks in subsequent sections. The goal of this project is to implement the function a simple compiler for a simple programming language. By implementing this simple compiler, you will do some basic parsing and use some basic data structures which would be useful for the other projects.

The input to your program will have two parts:

  1. The first part of the input is a program which is a list of procedure declarations followed by a main procedure.
  2. The second part of the input is a sequence of integers which will be used as the input to the program. Your compiler will read the program, represent it internally in appropriate data structures, and then executes the program using the second part of the input as the input to the program. The output of the compiler is the output produced by the program execution. More details about the input format and the expected output of your program are given in subsequent sections.

The remainder of this document is organized as follows.

  1. The second section describes the input format.
  2. The third section describes the expected output.
  3. The fourth section describes the requirements on your solution.
  4. The fifth section gives instructions for this programming assignment and additional instructions that apply to all programming assignments in this course.

2         Input Format

2.1         Grammar and Tokens

The input of your program is specified by the following context-free grammar:

input programinputs
program main
program proc_decl_sectionmain
proc_decl_section proc_decl
proc_decl_section proc_declproc_decl_section
proc_decl PROCprocedure_nameprocedure_bodyENDPROC
procedure_name ID
procedure_name NUM
procedure_body statement_list
statement_list statement
statement_list statementstatement_list
statement input_statement
statement output_statement
statement procedure_invocation
statement do_statement
statement assign_statement
input_statement INPUT ID SEMICOLON
output_statement OUTPUT ID SEMICOLON
procedure_invocation procedure_name SEMICOLON
do_statement DO ID procedure_invocation
assign_statement ID EQUAL expr SEMICOLON
expr primary
expr primary operator primary
operator PLUS
operator MINUS
operator MULT
operator DIV
primary ID
primary NUM
main MAIN procedure_body
inputs NUM
inputs NUM inputs

The code that we provided has a class LexicalAnalyzer with methods getToken() and ungetToken(). You do not need to change the function. Your parser will use the provided functions to get or unget tokens as needed. The definition of the tokens is given below for completeness. To use the methods, you should first instantiate a (lexer object of class LexicalAnalyzer and call the methods on this instance.

              char               = a | b | … | z | A | B | … | Z | 0 | 1 | … | 9
               letter           = a | b | … | z | A | B | … | Z
               pdigit           = 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9
               digit              = 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9
SEMICOLON = ;
PLUS = +
MINUS = –
MULT = *
DIV = /
EQUAL = =
MAIN = (M).(A).(I).(N)
PROC = (P).(R).(O).(C)
ENDPROC = (E).(N).(D).(P).(R).(O).(C)
INPUT = (I).(N).(P).(U).(T)
OUTPUT = (O).(U).(T).(P).(U).(T)
DO = (D).(O)
NUM = 0 | pdigit . digit*
ID = letter . char*

What you need to do is to write a parser to parse the input according to the grammar and store the information being parsed by your parser in appropriate data structures to allow your program to execute the program on the inputs. For now do not worry how that is achieved. I will explain that in details.

2.2       Examples

The following are examples of input with corresponding outputs. The output will be explained in more details in the next section.

  1. MAIN
    • = 1;Y = X;

OUTPUT X;

OUTPUT Y;

1 2 3 18 19

This example shows a program with no procedure declarations (PROC) and a MAIN procedure that does not read any input. The output of the program will be

1 1

The sequence of numbers at the end does not affect the output of the program.

  1. MAIN

INPUT X; INPUT Y;

  • = X + Y;
  • = X+Y;

OUTPUT X; OUTPUT Y;

3 7 18 19

This is similar to the previous example, but here we have two input statements. The first input statement reads a value for X from the sequence of numbers and X gets the value 3. The second input statement reads a value for Y which gets the value 7. Here the output will be

10 17

Note that the values 18 and 19 are not read and do not affect the execution of the program.

  1. PROC INCX
    • = X + 1;

ENDPROC MAIN

INPUT X;

INPUT Y;

INCX; INCX;

  • = X+Y;

OUTPUT Y;

OUTPUT X;

3 18 19

In this example, we have a procedure called INCX. When the procedure is invoked, the code of the procedure is executed. In this case, X is incremented by 1. The second invocation also increments X again so the final value of X is 5. The output is the following.

23 5

  1. PROC INCX
    • = X + 1;

ENDPROC MAIN

INPUT X;

INPUT Y;

Z = 2;

DO Z INCX;

  • = X+Y;

OUTPUT Y;

OUTPUT X;

3 18 19

This is similar to the previous example, but instead of invoking INCX two separate times, we achieve the same result with a do_statement. Z = 2 assigns the value 2 to Z and DO Z INCX; will invoke INCXZ times (with the value of Z equal to 2).

For your parser, the parse function does not necessarily return true or false. They can return other quantities. For example, it might be useful for parse_primary() to return the token of the primary.

3        Semantics

In this section I give a precise definition of the meaning of the input and the output that your compiler should generate.

3.1         Variables and Locations

The program uses names to refer to variables. For each variable name, we associate a unique locations that will hold the value of the variable. All variables are initially 0. This association between a variable name and its location is assumed to be implemented with a function location that takes a string as input and returns an integer value. We assume that there is a variable mem which is an array with each entry corresponding to one variable.

To support allocation of variables to mem entries, you can have simple location table (or map) that associates a variable name with a location. As you parse the program, if you encounter a new variable name, you give it a new location and add an entry to in the location table with the variable name and location. In order to keep track of available locations, you can use a global variable location which is initially 0 and which is incremented every time a variable is allocated a location.

For example, if the input program is

MAIN

INPUT X; INPUT Y;

  • = X + Y;
  • = X+Y;
  • = X+Y;

W = Z;

OUTPUT X; OUTPUT Y;

3 7 18 19

Then the locations of variables will be

X 0 Y 1 Z 2 W 3

3.2       Statements

We explain the semantics of each statement in terms of an implementation model that assigns locations to variables and we have described in the previous section.

3.2.1           Assignment Statement

We consider an assignment of the form

ID = primary1 operator primary2

This has the following effect mem[location(t1.lexeme)] = value(primary1) operator value(primary2)

where t1 is the ID token for the lhs for the assignment and value(primary) is equal to atoi(primary.lexeme) or mem[location(primary.lexeme)] depending on whether or not primary is NUM or ID respectively. For example, if the input program is

MAIN

INPUT X; INPUT Y;

  • = Y + 3;
  • = X+Y;
  • = X+Y;

W = Z;

OUTPUT X; OUTPUT Y;

3 7 18 19

the statement X = Y+3 will be equivalent to mem[0] = mem[1] + 3.

3.2.2           Input and Output

Input and output statements are relatively straightforward • OUTPUT X is equivalent to cout « mem[location(“X”)];

  • INPUT X is equivalent to cin » mem[location(“X”)];.

3.2.3           Procedure Invocation

A procedure invocation

ID ;

is equivalent to executing every statement in the procedure at the point of the call. The execution of

stmt1 stmt2 … stmtk

P; stmtk+1 stmtk+2 stmtm

where P is the name of a procedure declared as

PROC P stmt’1 stmt’2

… stmt’m’ ENDPROC is equivalent to

stmt1 stmt2 … stmtk stmt’1 stmt’2

… stmt’m’ stmtk+1 stmtk+2 stmtm

3.2.4          DO Statememt

The statement DO ID1 ID2; where the first identifier is the name of a variable and the second identifier is the name of a procedure is equivalent to n invocations of ID2 where n is the value of ID1 at the point the do_statement is executed. If the variable that determine the number of invocations is modified in the procedure body, that does not affect the number of invocations. For example

PROC P

X = X+1;

ENDPROC MAIN

INPUT X;

DO X P;

OUTPUT X;

3

The statement DO X P; is equivalent to P; P; P;. The output of the program will be 6.

3.3        Assumptions

You can assume that the following semantic errors are not going to be tested

  1. Two procedures declared with the same name. You can assume that all procedure names are unique. So, an invocation of a procedure cannot be ambiguous.
  2. You can assume that if there is an invocation with a given procedure name, there must be a procedure declaration with the same name.
  3. You can assume that if there is an invocation with a given procedure name, then there is no variable with the same name in the program.
  4. You can assume that if there is a variable with a given name in the program, then there is no procedure declaration for a procedure with the same name as the variable.
  5. If you want to use an array for the mem variable, you can use an array of size 1000 which should be enough for all test cases, but make sure that your code handles the case when location variable reaches 1000 because that is good programming practice.

In addition, you can assume the following that the input will not have recursive procedure invocations.

4        Requirements

You should write a program to generate the correct output for a given input as described above. You should start by writing the parser and make sure that it correctly parses the input before attempting to implement the rest of the project.

You will be provided with a number of test cases. Since this is the first project, the number of test cases provided with the project will be relatively large.

5        Instructions

Follow these steps:

  • Download the lexer.cc, lexer.h, inputbuf.cc and inputbuf.h files accompanying this project description. Note that these files might be a little different from the code you’ve seen in class or elsewhere.
  • Compile your code using GCC on Ubuntu 18 (Ubuntu). You will need to use the g++ command to compile your code in a terminal window. See section 4 for more details on how to compile using GCC.

Note that you are required to compile and test your code on Ubuntu using the GCC compiler.You are free to use any IDE or text editor on any platform, however, using tools available on Ubuntu (or tools that you could install on Ubuntu) could save time in the development/compile/test cycle.

  • Test your code to see if it passes the provided test cases. You will need to extract the test cases from the zip file and run the test script test1.sh. See section 5 for more details.
  • Submit your code on the course submission website before the deadline. You can submit as many times as you need. Make sure your code is compiled correctly on the website, if you get a compiler error, fix the problem and submit again.
  • Only the last version you submit is graded. There are no exceptions to this.

Keep in mind that

  • You should use C/C++, no other programming languages are allowed.
  • All programming assignments in this course are individual assignments. Students must complete the assignments on their own.
  • You should submit your code on the course submission website, no other submission forms will be accepted.
  • You should familiarize yourself with the Ubuntu environment and the GCC compiler. Programming assignments in this course might be very different from what you are used to in other classes.

5.0.1         Evaluation

The submissions are evaluated based on the automated test cases on the submission website. Your grade will be proportional to the number of test cases passing. If your code does not compile on the submission website, you will not receive any points.

NOTE: The next two sections apply to all programming assignments.

You should use the instructions in the following sections to compile and test your programs for all programming assignments in this course.

5.0.2               Compiling your code with GCC

You should compile your programs with the GCC compilers. GCC is a collection of compilers for many programming languages. There are separate commands for compiling C and C++ programs:

  • Use the gcc command to compile C programs
  • Use the g++ command to compile C++ programs Here is an example of how to compile a simple C++ program:

$ g++ test_program.cpp

If the compilation is successful, it will generate an executable file named a.out in the same folder as the program. You can change the output file name by specifying the -o option:

$ g++ test_program.cpp -o hello.out

To enable C++11 with g++, use the -std=c++11 option:

$ g++ -std=c++11 test_program.cpp -o hello.out

The following table summarizes some useful GCC compiler options:

Switch Can be used with Description
-o path gcc, g++ Change the filename of the generated artifact
-g gcc, g++ Generate debugging information
-ggdb gcc, g++ Generate debugging information for use by GDB
-Wall gcc, g++ Enable most warning messages
-w gcc, g++ Inhibit all warning messages
-std=c++11 g++ Compile C++ code using 2011 C++ standard
-std=c99             gcc Compile C code using ISO C99 standard
-std=c11             gcc Compile C code using ISO C11 standard

You can find a comprehensive list of GCC options in the following page:

https://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-4.8.5/gcc/

Compiling projects with multiple files

If your program is written in multiple source files that should be linked together, you can compile and link all files together with one command:

$ g++ file1.cpp file2.cpp file3.cpp

Or you can compile them separately and then link:

$ g++ -c file1.cpp $ g++ -c file2.cpp $ g++ -c file3.cpp

$ g++ file1.o file2.o file3.o

The files with the .o extension are object files but are not executable. They are linked together with the last statement and the final executable will be a.out.

You can replace g++ with gcc in all examples listed above to compile C programs.

5.0.3             Testing your code on Ubuntu

Your programs should not explicitly open any file. You can only use the standard input e.g. std::cin in

C++, getchar(), scanf() in C and standard output e.g. std::cout in C++, putchar(), printf() in C for input/output.

However, this restriction does not limit our ability to feed input to the program from files nor does it mean that we cannot save the output of the program in a file. We use a technique called standard IO redirection to achieve this.

Suppose we have an executable program a.out, we can run it by issuing the following command in a terminal (the dollar sign is not part of the command):

$ ./a.out

If the program expects any input, it waits for it to be typed on the keyboard and any output generated by the program will be displayed on the terminal screen.

To feed input to the program from a file, we can redirect the standard input to a file:

$ ./a.out < input_data.txt

Now, the program will not wait for keyboard input, but rather read its input from the specified file. We can redirect the output of the program as well:

$ ./a.out > output_file.txt

In this way, no output will be shown in the terminal window, but rather it will be saved to the specified file.

Note that programs have access to another standard stream which is called standard error e.g. std::cerr in C++, fprintf(stderr, …) in C. Any such output is still displayed on the terminal screen. It is possible to redirect standard error to a file as well, but we will not discuss that here. Finally, it’s possible to mix both into one command:

$ ./a.out < input_data.txt > output_file.txt

Which will redirect standard input and standard output to input_data.txt and output_file.txt respectively.

Now that we know how to use standard IO redirection, we are ready to test the program with test cases.

Test Cases

A test case is an input and output specification. For a given input there is an expected output. A test case for our purposes is usually represented by two files:

  • txt
  • txt.expected

The input is given in test_name.txt and the expected output is given in test_name.txt.expected. To test a program against a single test case, first we execute the program with the test input data:

$ ./a.out < test_name.txt > program_output.txt

The output generated by the program will be stored in program_output.txt. To see if the program generated the expected output, we need to compare program_output.txt and test_name.txt.expected. We do that using a general purpose tool called diff:

$ diff -Bw program_output.txt test_name.txt.expected

The options -Bw tell diff to ignore whitespace differences between the two files. If the files are the same

(ignoring the whitespace differences), we should see no output from diff, otherwise, diff will produce a report showing the differences between the two files.

We would simply consider the test passed if diff could not find any differences, otherwise we consider the test failed.

Our grading system uses this method to test your submissions against multiple test cases. There is also a test script accompanying this project test1.sh which will make your life easier by testing your code against multiple test cases with one command.

Here is how to use test1.sh to test your program:

  • Store the provided test cases zip file in the same folder as your project source files
  • Open a terminal window and navigate to your project folder
  • Unzip the test archive using the unzip command: bash $ unzip test_cases.zip

NOTE: the actual file name is probably different, you should replace test_cases.zip with the correct file name.

  • Store the test1.sh script in your project directory as well
  • Make the script executable: bash $ chmod +x test1.sh
  • Compile your program. The test script assumes your executable is called a.out
  • Run the script to test your code: bash $ ./test1.sh

The output of the script should be self explanatory. To test your code after you make changes, you will just perform the last two steps (compile and run test1.sh).