CS2200 Project 1 Solved

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1 Requirements
• Download the proper version of CircuitSim. A copy of CircuitSim is available under Files on Canvas.You may also download it from the CircuitSim website (https://ra4king.github.io/CircuitSim/). In order to run CircuitSim, Java must be installed. If you are a Mac user, you may need to right-click on the JAR file and select “Open” in the menu to bypass Gatekeeper restrictions.
• CircuitSim is still under development and may have unknown bugs. Please back up your work usingsome form of version control, such as a local/private git repository or Dropbox. Do not use public git repositories; it is against the Georgia Tech Honor Code.
• The RAMA-2200 assembler is written in Python. If you do not have Python 2.6 or newer installed onyour system, you will need to install it before you continue.
2 Project Overview and Description
Project 1 is designed to give you a good feel for exactly how a processor works. In Phase 1, you will design a datapath in CircuitSim to implement a supplied instruction set architecture. You will use the datapath as a tool to determine the control signals needed to execute each instruction. In Phases 2 and 3, you are required to build a simple finite state machine (the “control unit”) to control your computer and actually run programs on it.
Note: You will need to have a working knowledge of CircuitSim. Make sure that you know how to make basic circuits as well as subcircuits before proceeding. The TAs are always here if you need help.
3 Phase 1 – Implement the Datapath

Figure 1: Datapath for the RAMA-2200 Processor
In this phase of the project, you must learn the Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) for the processor we will be implementing. Afterwards, we will implement a complete RAMA-2200 datapath in CircuitSim using what you have just learned.
You must do the following:
1. Learn and understand the RAMA-2200 ISA. The ISA is fully specified and defined in Appendix A: RAMA-2200 Instruction Set Architecture. Do not move on until you have fully read and understood the ISA specification. Every single detail will be relevant to implementing your datapath in the next step.
2. Using CircuitSim, implement the RAMA-2200 datapath. To do this, you will need to use the details of the RAMA-2200 datapath defined in Appendix A: RAMA-2200 Instruction Set Architecture. You should model your datapath on Figure 1.
3.1 Hints
3.1.1 Subcircuits
CircuitSim enables you to break create reusable components in the form of subcircuits. We highly recommend that you break parts of your design up into subcircuits. At a minimum, you will want to implement your ALU in a subcircuit. The control unit you implement in Phase 2 is another prime candidate for a subcircuit.
3.1.2 Debugging
As you build the datapath, you should consider adding functionality that will allow you to operate the whole datapath by hand. This will make testing individual operations quite simple. We suggest your datapath include devices that will allow you to put arbitrary values on the bus and to view the current value of the bus. Feel free to add any additional hardware that will help you understand what is going on.
3.1.3 Memory Addresses
Because of CircuitSim limitations, the RAM module is limited to no more than 16 address bits. Therefore, per our ISA, any 32-bit values used as memory addresses will be truncated to 16 bits (with the 16 most significant bits disregarded). We recommend you implement this (i.e. truncate the most significant bits) before feeding the address value from the MAR (Memory Address Register) to the RAM.
3.1.4 Comparison Logic
The “comparison logic” box in Figure 1 is responsible for performing the comparison logic associated with the SKP instruction. The comparison logic should read the current value on the bus plus the mode bits from the IR. When executing SKP, you should compute A B using the ALU. While this result of the ALU is being driven on the bus, the comparison logic should read the result A B and output a single “true” or “false” bit for either the condition A == B or A<B depending on the mode input.
Your comparison logic should be purely combinational. Feel free to use any CircuitSim components you wish to aid in your implementation.
3.1.5 Register File
You must implement your own register file. That is to say, you cannot use CircuitSim’s built-in RAM to create the register file. Consider what logic components you may want to use to implement addressing functionality (multiplexers, demultiplexers, decoders, etc). Your zero register must be implemented such that writes to it are ine↵ective, i.e., attempting to write a non-zero value to the zero register will do nothing. Do not forget to do this or you will lose points!
3.1.6 Register Select
From lecture and the textbook, you should be familiar with the “register select” (RegSel) multiplexer. The mux is responsible for feeding the register number from the correct field in the instruction into the register file. See Table 4 for a list of inputs your mux should have.
4 Phase 2 – Implement the Microcontrol Unit
In this phase of the project, you will use CircuitSim to implement the microcontrol unit for the RAMA2200 processor. This component is referred to as the “Control Logic” in the images and schematics. The microcontroller will contain all of the signal lines to the various parts of the datapath.
You must do the following:
1. Read and understand the microcontroller logic:
• Please refer to Appendix B: Microcontrol Unit for details.
• Note: You will be required to generate the control signals for each state of the processor in the next phase, so make sure you understand the connections between the datapath and the microcontrol unit before moving on.
2. Implement the Microcontrol Unit using CircuitSim. The appendix contains all of the necessary information. Take note that the input and output signals on the schematics directly match the signals marked in the RAMA-2200 datapath schematic (see Figure 1).
5 Phase 3 – Microcode and Testing
In this final stage of the project, you will write the microcode control program that will be loaded into the microcontrol unit you implemented in Phase 2. Then, you will hook up the control unit you built in Phase 2 of the project to the datapath you implemented in Phase 1. Finally, you will test your completed computer using a simple test program and ensure that it properly executes.
In order to generate the microcode, we have provided you a program called MCGen. This program is specially designed to read and write .mc files, and output .dat files that can be read by CircuitSim. Do not modify the file called config.txt; this file contains the microcode specification. Note: MCGen was created recently and is being used for the first time this semester. Not all bugs are known, so save frequently and consider backing up your files. If you find a bug, feel free to let the TAs know on Piazza.
You must do the following:
1. Open and fill out microcode.mc using MCGen. You will need to mark which control signal is high (that is 1) for each of the states.
2. Export your ROMs (Main ROM, Sequencer ROM, and Condition ROM) to .dat files. You will not turn in any of these files, they are just intermediate files that can be read by CircuitSim.
3. Import the ROMs in CircuitSim using the ”Load from file” option in the ROM’s ”Edit contents” menu.
4. Connect the completed control unit to the datapath you implemented in Phase 1. Using Figures 1 and 2, connect the control signals to their appropriate spots.
5. Finally, it is time to test your completed computer. Use the provided assembler (found in the “assembly” folder) to convert a test program from assembly to hex. For instructions on how to use the assembler and simulator, see README.txt in the “assembly” folder. Note: The simulator does not test your project, it simply provides a model. To test your design, you must load the assembled HEX into CircuitSim. We recommend using test programs that contain a single instruction since you are bound to have a few bugs at this stage of the project. Once you have built confidence, test your processor with the provided pow.s program as a more comprehensive test case.
6 Deliverables
Please submit all of the following files in a .tar.gz archive generated by one of the following:
• On Linux/Mac:machine (on Ubuntu, you may need toUse the provided Makefile. The Makefile will work on any Unix or Linux-basedsudo apt-get install build-essential if you have never installed the build tools). Run make submit to automatically package your project into the correct archive format.
• On Windows:(https://www.7-zip.org/) to be installed on your system. RunUse the provided submit.bat script. Submitting through this method will require 7zipsubmit.bat to automatically package your project into the correct archive format.
The generated archive should contain at a minimum the following files:
• CircuitSim datapath file (RAMA-2200.sim)
• Microcode file (microcode.mc)
Always re-download your assignment from Canvas after submitting to ensure that all necessary files were properly uploaded. If what we download does not work, you will get a 0 regardless of what is on your machine.
This project will be demoed. In order to receive full credit, you must sign up for a demo slot and complete the demo. We will announce when demo times are released.
7 Appendix A: RAMA-2200 Instruction Set Architecture
The RAMA-2200 is a simple, yet capable computer architecture. The RAMA-2200 combines attributes of both ARM and the LC-2200 ISA defined in the Ramachandran & Leahy textbook for CS 2200.
The RAMA-2200 is a word-addressable, 32-bit computer. All addresses refer to words, i.e. the first word (four bytes) in memory occupies address 0x0, the second word, 0x1, etc.
All memory addresses are truncated to 16 bits on access, discarding the 16 most significant bits if the address was stored in a 32-bit register. This provides roughly 64 KB of addressable memory.
7.1 Registers
The RAMA-2200 has 16 general-purpose registers. While there are no hardware-enforced restraints on the uses of these registers, your code is expected to follow the conventions outlined below.
Table 1: Registers and their Uses
Register Number Name Use Callee Save?
0 $zero Always Zero NA
1 $at Assembler/Target Address NA
2 $v0 Return Value No
3 $a0 Argument 1 No
4 $a1 Argument 2 No
5 $a2 Argument 3 No
6 $t0 Temporary Variable No
7 $t1 Temporary Variable No
8 $t2 Temporary Variable No
9 $s0 Saved Register Yes
10 $s1 Saved Register Yes
11 $s2 Saved Register Yes
12 $k0 Reserved for OS and Traps NA
13 $sp Stack Pointer No
14 $fp Frame Pointer Yes
15 $ra Return Address No
1. Register 0 is always read as zero. Any values written to it are discarded. Note: for the purposes of this project, you must implement the zero register. Regardless of what is written to this register, it should always output zero.
2. Register 1 is used to hold the target address of a jump. It may also be used by pseudo-instructions generated by the assembler.
3. Register 2 is where you should store any returned value from a subroutine call.
4. Registers 3 – 5 are used to store function/subroutine arguments. Note: registers 2 through 8 should be placed on the stack if the caller wants to retain those values. These registers are fair game for the callee (subroutine) to trash.
5. Registers 6 – 8 are designated for temporary variables. The caller must save these registers if they want these values to be retained.
6. Registers 9 – 11 are saved registers. The caller may assume that these registers are never tampered with by the subroutine. If the subroutine needs these registers, then it should place them on the stack and restore them before they jump back to the caller.
7. Register 12 is reserved for handling interrupts. While it should be implemented, it otherwise will not have any special use on this assignment.
8. Register 13 is your anchor on the stack. It keeps track of the top of the activation record for a subroutine.
9. Register 14 is used to point to the first address on the activation record for the currently executing process.
10. Register 15 is used to store the address a subroutine should return to when it is finished executing.
7.2 Instruction Overview
The RAMA-2200 supports a variety of instruction forms, only a few of which we will use for this project. The instructions we will implement in this project are summarized below.
Table 2: RAMA-2200 Instruction Set
31302928272625242322212019181716151413121110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0000 DR SR1 unused SR2
0001 DR SR1 unused SR2
0010 DR SR1 immval20
0011 DR BaseR o↵set20
0100 SR BaseR o↵set20
0101 0000 unused PCo↵set20
0110 RA AT unused
0111 unused
1000 mode SR1 unused SR2
1001 DR unused PCo↵set20
ADD
NAND
ADDI
LW
SW
GOTO
JALR
HALT
SKP
LEA
7.2.1 Conditional Branching
Conditional branching in the RAMA-2200 ISA is provided via two instructions: the SKP (“skip”) instruction and the GOTO (“unconditional branch”) instruction. The SKP instruction compares two registers and skips the immediately following instruction if the comparison evaluates to true. If the action to be conditionally executed is only a single instruction, it can be placed immediately following the SKP instruction. Otherwise a GOTO can be placed following the SKP instruction to branch over to a longer sequence of instructions to be conditionally executed.
7.3 Detailed Instruction Reference
7.3.1 ADD
Assembler Syntax
ADD DR, SR1, SR2
Encoding
31302928272625242322212019181716151413121110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0000 DR SR1 unused SR2
Operation
DR = SR1 + SR2;
Description
The ADD instruction obtains the first source operand from the SR1 register. The second source operand is obtained from the SR2 register. The second operand is added to the first source operand, and the result is stored in DR.
7.3.2 NAND
Assembler Syntax
NAND DR, SR1, SR2
Encoding
31302928272625242322212019181716151413121110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0001 DR SR1 unused SR2
Operation
DR = ~(SR1 & SR2);
Description
The NAND instruction performs a logical NAND (AND NOT) on the source operands obtained from SR1 and SR2. The result is stored in DR.
HINT: A logical NOT can be achieved by performing a NAND with both source operands the same.
For instance,
NAND DR, SR1, SR1

…achieves the following logical operation: DR SR1.
7.3.3 ADDI
Assembler Syntax
ADDI DR, SR1, immval20
Encoding
31302928272625242322212019181716151413121110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0010 DR SR1 immval20
Operation
DR = SR1 + SEXT(immval20);
Description
The ADDI instruction obtains the first source operand from the SR1 register. The second source operand is obtained by sign-extending the immval20 field to 32 bits. The resulting operand is added to the first source operand, and the result is stored in DR.
7.3.4 LW
Assembler Syntax
LW DR, offset20(BaseR)
Encoding
31302928272625242322212019181716151413121110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0011 DR BaseR o↵set20
Operation
DR = MEM[BaseR + SEXT(offset20)];
Description
An address is computed by sign-extending bits [19:0] to 32 bits and then adding this result to the contents of the register specified by bits [23:20]. The 32-bit word at this address is loaded into DR.
7.3.5 SW
Assembler Syntax
SW SR, offset20(BaseR)
Encoding
31302928272625242322212019181716151413121110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0100 SR BaseR o↵set20
Operation
MEM[BaseR + SEXT(offset20)] = SR;
Description
An address is computed by sign-extending bits [19:0] to 32 bits and then adding this result to the contents of the register specified by bits [23:20]. The 32-bit word obtained from register SR is then stored at this address.
7.3.6 GOTO
Assembler Syntax
GOTO LABEL
Encoding
31302928272625242322212019181716151413121110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0101 0000 unused PCo↵set20
Operation
PC = PC + SEXT(PCoffset20);
Description
The program unconditionally branches to the location specified by adding the sign-extended PCo↵set20 field to the incremented PC (address of instruction + 1). In other words, the PCo↵set20 field specifies the number of instructions, forwards or backwards, to branch over.
7.3.7 JALR
Assembler Syntax
JALR RA, AT
Encoding
31302928272625242322212019181716151413121110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0110 RA AT unused
Operation
RA = PC;
PC = AT;
Description
First, the incremented PC (address of the instruction + 1) is stored into register RA. Next, the PC is loaded with the value of register AT, and the computer resumes execution at the new PC.
7.3.8 HALT
Assembler Syntax
HALT
Encoding
31302928272625242322212019181716151413121110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0111 unused
Description
The machine is brought to a halt and executes no further instructions.
7.3.9 SKP
Assembler Syntax
SKPE SR1, SR2
SKPLT SR1, SR2
Encoding
31302928272625242322212019181716151413121110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1000 mode SR1 unused SR2
mode is defined to be 0x0 for SKPE, and 0x1 for SKPLT.
Operation
if (MODE == 0x0) { if (SR1 == SR2) PC = PC + 1;
} else if (MODE == 0x1) { if (SR1 < SR2) PC = PC + 1;
}
Description
The SKP instruction compares the source operands SR1 and SR2 according to the rule specified by the mode field. For mode 0x0, the comparison succeeds if SR1 equals SR2. For mode 0x1, the comparison succeeds if SR1 is less than SR2.
If the comparison succeeds, the incremented PC (address of instruction + 1) is incremented again, for a resulting PC of (address of instruction + 2). This e↵ectively skips the immediately following instruction.. If the comparison fails, the program continues execution as normal.
7.3.10 LEA
Assembler Syntax
LEA DR, label
Encoding
31302928272625242322212019181716151413121110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1001 DR unused PCo↵set20
Operation
DR = PC + SEXT(PCoffset20);
Description
An address is computed by sign-extending bits [19:0] to 32 bits and adding this result to the incremented PC (address of instruction + 1). It then stores the computed address into register DR.
8 Appendix B: Microcontrol Unit
You will make a microcontrol unit which will drive all of the control signals to various items on the datapath. This Finite State Machine (FSM) can be constructed in a variety of ways. You could implement it with combinational logic and flip flops, or you could hard-wire signals using a single ROM. The single ROM solution will waste a tremendous amount of space since most of the microstates do not depend on the opcode or the conditional test to determine which signals to assert. For example, since the condition line is an input for the address, every microstate would have to have an address for condition = 0 as well as condition = 1, even though this only matters for one particular microstate.
To solve this problem, we will use a three ROM microcontroller. In this arrangement, we will have three ROMs:
• the main ROM, which outputs the control signals,
• the sequencer ROM, which helps to determine which microstate to go at the end of the FETCH state,
• and the condition ROM, which helps determine whether or not to skip during the SKP instruction.
Examine the following:

Figure 2: Three ROM Microcontrol Unit
As you can see, there are three di↵erent locations that the next state can come from: part of the output from the previous state (main ROM), the sequencer ROM, and the condition ROM. The mux controls which of these sources gets through to the state register. If the previous state’s “next state” field determines where to go, neither the OPTest nor ChkCmp signals will be asserted. If the opcode from the IR determines the next state (such as at the end of the FETCH state), the OPTest signal will be asserted. If the comparison circuitry determines the next state (such as in the SKP instruction), the ChkCmp signal will be asserted. Note that these two signals should never be asserted at the same time since nothing is input into the “11” pin on the MUX.
The sequencer ROM should have one address per instruction, and the condition ROM should have one address for condition true and one for condition false.
Before getting down to specifics you need to determine the control scheme for the datapath. To do this examine each instruction, one by one, and construct a finite state bubble diagram showing exactly what control signals will be set in each state. Also determine what are the conditions necessary to pass from one state to the next. You can experiment by manually controlling your control signals on the bus you’ve created in Phase 1 – Implement the Datapath to make sure that your logic is sound.
Once the finite state bubble diagram is produced, the next step is to encode the contents of the Control Unit ROM using MCGen. Then you must design and build (in CircuitSim) the Control Unit circuit which will contain the three ROMs, a MUX, and a state register. Your design will be better if it allows you to single step and ensure that it is working properly. Finally, you will load the Control Unit’s ROMs with the hexadecimal generated by MCGen’s export feature.
Note that the input address to the ROM uses bit 0 for the lowest bit of the current state and 5 for the highest bit for the current state.
Table 3: ROM Output Signals

Bit Purpose Bit Purpose Bit Purpose Bit Purpose Bit Purpose
0 NextState[0] 6 DrREG 12 LdIR 18 WrMEM 24 ChkCmp
1 NextState[1] 7 DrMEM 13 LdMAR 19 RegSelLo
2 NextState[2] 8 DrALU 14 LdA 20 RegSelHi
3 NextState[3] 9 DrPC 15 LdB 21 ALULo
4 NextState[4] 10 DrOFF 16 LdCmp 22 ALUHi
5 NextState[5] 11 LdPC 17 WrREG 23 OPTest

Table 4: Register Selection Map

RegSelHi RegSelLo Register
0 0 RX (IR[27:24])
0 1 RY (IR[23:20])
1 0 RZ (IR[3:0])
1 1 unused

Table 5: ALU Function Map

ALUHi ALUlLo Function
0 0 ADD
0 1 SUB
1 0 NAND
1 1 A + 1