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# Computer science over view

what is the computers

History of computers

Biography of some computer engineers

CREDIT TO:Dr. Fatih Erdogan Sevilgen

What is the computer?

The word of (computer) has taken from the word of compute, which means calculating and computing . Computer is an electronic machine and nowadays one of the most effective and useful electronic machine entire world. Computer   has the capacity of receive and keep the databases according to the given instructions with a high speed and thousands of time faster than human .I want to talk about a bit about history of computer first then about the details of it.

History of computer science

2500BC people used to use the Abacus.Abacus is the first know calculating machine used for counting(addition, subtraction,division and multiplication) it is made of beads and rods. So how to use abacus ? Let me explain it to  you :

there is some instruction about how to use abacus let’s do it setup by setup.

1: Learning numbers:Play a simple game with the abacus. When it’s your turn, you say a number, such as 42, and the child “makes” it or shows it on the abacus. Then the child says a number for you and you show it on the abacus. Continue taking turns like this.

2: Going over 10 in addition: Choose for example 6 beads on one wire and 8 on the next one. You can show how the five and five on those two wires makes ten, and some are left over.

In the year 1614AD Napier’s bones was invented by (John Napier) a Scottish mathematician .A set of   bones consisted of nine rods,one for each digits and one through nine and a constant rod for the digit zero(0).In the year 1633AD the slide rule was invented by (William Oughtred).

1642 AD the rotating  wheel calculator  was first developed by French philosopher (Blaise

Pascal) .

The  first big digital  computer  in 1937 was designed  by

Howard Icon”  and in 1944 was made by I M B company. in the first days this computer was named as a  “ automatic  calculator “. But after that the name has changed to “mark” and it had a mechanical structure .The features of mark computers were:

1:  15.5m length and 61cm width and 2.4m height.

2:  It’s  weight was more than 5 Ton.

3: it had the capability of execution less than 6 seconds.

E N I AC COMPUTERS:

the first electronic computer was  by the name of (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) that has made by two American scientists (J.prosper Eckert) and (Jhon Wiliam Mauchly) in 1946.this computer  has used in world war two by American army.

ENAIC Computers had the following features:

1:  it’s limit of  the mass was 1500ft square.

2:it’s weight has reached till 30000kg.

3:more than 18000 (vacuum tubes)have used on it.

4:it was 2000 times faster than mechanical calculators because it was and electronic computer.

5:the price of that kind of computer have reached until 487000\$.

E D V A C Computers:

In the year 1952” Ikuurt and Machily” two American scientists, for the first time were able to make a kind of computer which was able to save data called (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer).

U N I V A C Computers:

UNIVAC or ( Universal Atomatic Computer)

Was the first common commercial computer of united states of America. It was the first product of (Eckert and mauchly) in (Remongton Rand-INC) has produced.building of this computer has started in 1947 and has ended in 1951.

Biography of Charles Babbage(1791-1871)

Charles Babbage was known for his contribution to the first mechanical computers,which laid groundwork for more complex  future designs.Charles Babbage an English mathematician, philosopher and and inventor  was born on December 16 ,1791 in London England. Often called “the father of computing”.Babbage detailed plans for mechanical calculating engines, difference engines and analytical engines.After that Charles Babbage aimed to make a machine which should work by automatic program called (analytical engine).But he could not make it because of his economical problem and the technology was not developed enough. the analytic engine that Charles Babbage has made it , has five attitudes which were An key inspiration to built todays computer:

1:having input devises

2:having storage devices

3:having processor

4:having control section

5:having output devices

Charles Babbage has passed away on October 18, 1871 in London.